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We knew that we had been relegated to the past and were supposed to be forgotten about. It was my generation and particularly myself that had the vision that we needed to pursue and understand these things. This happened amongst the tribes all throughout Northern California. I remember being in the third grade and opening up the sociology book to a chapter called "The Vanishing American. I remember sitting there and actually having the sensation of transparency, that I was not significant enough to be honored or represented in the curriculum.
I'm not a Navaho, but as an Indian it was such a condescending experience. It just riveted me. I looked across the room and there was one other Indian in the classroom, a girl named Debbie.
I looked at her and then it was just like a piece of me either kind of went to sleep or went someplace else. I thought to myself that I didn't deserve to be there as an Indian. I needed to be an American. I was being told that I needed to change, needed to evolve, needed to not be who I was.
We grew up in that time. We grew up transparent, we grew up invisible, we grew up expected to know that we were secondary citizens. Children today don't believe they're secondary citizens. Some of the psychological and emotional wounds of our experience are beginning to heal and the repression of the over- culture has lightened up on us. I think that Tolowa children today don't have the same needs that I had - they can focus on other things and still be very much who they are. They don't have to grow up asking, "Am I Tolowa or am I not? Should I try to assimilate and be ashamed of my culture?
Of course they have to compete with mass media, globalization, the awesome pressure of economics in the United States. I mean we're the most powerful nation on earth and we demand that our citizens behave in a certain way. The impact of that is absolutely amazing.
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Those pressures are intense, especially when you have a different theology or history or view. My own daughter, when she got to kindergarten, came home and said, "You know I can no longer speak Tolowa. We never encouraged assimilation in that sense. We taught pride and participation and belongingness to a cultural experience that enriches your life. She just decided on her own, just realized that her primary language had better be English. What does that tell us? It tells us that the pressures, the demands put on us to be a part of the society are there.
But hopefully what's changed is that we no longer have to be ashamed of our culture, our language, or our religion. We don't have to forget and move on and become transparent in Americana. NEA: I read that you worked to develop a curriculum in the public schools that would include Tolowa language instruction. Could speak about that and your work to keep the Tolowa language alive?
Lore MR. There were a few anthropological pieces written but we didn't have any kind of basic translator for our language. But then my parents and family got involved - again with the community association - in an effort to do language work because my mom and dad's generation knew the language and their grandparents and great grandparents spoke the languages of the area. They felt that my generation was missing out. So there was a great push to look at the language. That's when we came up with an orthography for our language.
We spent about seventeen years with the folks from the older generations, picking their memories and asking questions about the language in order to document it as much as possible.
I grew up right in the middle of that. Then I was sent away to college. I was told by the older generation, "We've gone as far as we can. We need your help. You must go to college and then come home to do this work. None of my family had ever been. I ended up coming back to teach it at the high school. It can now be used for foreign language requirements.
Loren Bommelyn | NEA
We did a lot work to bring it into mainstream experience. I have students across the basin that take my class. That's just been ongoing work. I needed information. I needed ideas and concepts to extend my classes. NEA: I was wondering if you ever felt pressure or felt overwhelmed by the fact that you're one of the youngest tradition bearers in the community? It rules my life a lot of times.
I do come around to the point where I tell myself that a person can only do what they're meant to do. It's ridiculous to keep asking myself to do more because I've done so much. I've worked so hard with regalia and on basketry and the language. I've worked so hard to train my voice and develop my knowledge about song and lyric and the history of all the songs.
I've learned the protocols and formulae that go with the ceremonies. I've spent my life energy doing these things and at the same time getting a college degree, teaching daily in a public school , serving on the Council and raising three children. I've done a heck of a lot. Sometimes I think I need to forgive myself. But just this morning as I was working on a baby basket, I got into the the same dialogue that goes on in my mind every once in a while.
What if, in twenty-five,forty, fifty years from now when I'm dead and gone, some child or individual is reaching out to try to understand something about who they are or should be, but what they need is not there. That scares me. But then I go, "Stop that. Get off this and move onto the day and make your basket and stop thinking about it. NEA: Do you believe that the focus of the community should be on educating the young Tolowa or do you think that education should also spread beyond the community and educate a wider audience about the traditions and the culture?
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You know, there's a part of the Tolowa community who are looking that information and that information sustains them. Then there's those Tolowa who have chosen assimilation as their bible - they're ashamed of being Tolowa and they don't want to be reminded that they're Tolowa. They're glad that their mom married somebody who's not an Indian and they're intending to marry non-Indian just to get out of this whole business of being Indian.
And then there are a whole bunch of people who are not Indian but are very interested in this stuff. I've learned learned that, for example, if you have to go to the county board of supervisors and they're ignorant about your history, culture, concerns and issues, they're not going to be able to do anything to help you. They would annul the union in to escape bigamy charges.
Sophia Loren at 84: 'I don't think I could have lived with any more passion than I have'
In both Loren and Ponti became French citizens so Ponti could divorce Giuliana, and in they were at last legally married. Ponti became her adviser as much as her life partner, suggesting Sofia Lazarro became Sophia Loren — a move devised to widen her audience. Aida was her first starring role under this billing, and the critical acclaim was unanimous. A five-picture contract with Paramount Studios in catapulted Loren to international stardom, amongst these movies there was the romantic comedy Houseboat, in which she starred with her old lover, Cary Grant.
Dennis Stock would capture the two sharing a table in Hollywood, the photograph interrupting their conversation. The drama, which includes a harrowing rape scene, attracted critical acclaim and secured twenty-two awards for Loren. The photographs taken by Elliott Erwitt on the set on have an almost noir-like quality, heightening and mirroring the tension of the movie itself. DeMille Award followed in Dear Magnum user, We have made some changes to our site.
If you are looking for our image archives and licencing service, please visit Magnum Pro Don't show again Yes, take me to Magnum Pro No, thank you. Photographers View All. Newsletter Signup. Newsroom The Magnum Digest: September 27, At 85 today, we explore the Magnum archive on the Italian actress - on set and off. David Seymour Sophia Loren.